In 1992 in his famous book The End of History the US political scientist Francis Fukuyama proclaimed the final victory of the neo-liberalism and argued that neo-liberalism is universally applicable:
"What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government." –Francis Fukuyama in his book The End of History
And so the neo-cons - led by the Bush dynasty and the Clinton-duo - embarked on the crusade to export these universal neo-liberal values to the rest of the world.
They spoke to those nations about all the beautiful things that will happen to them if they joined the club. And in case the nice talking didn’t work they carried a big stick to reinforce the advantages of joining the club. Just like in the very beautiful and famous Goethe poem Erlking:
"Wilt go, then, dear infant, wilt go with me there?
My daughters shall tend thee with sisterly care;
My daughters by night their glad festival keep,
They'll dance thee, and rock thee, and sing thee to sleep."
"I love thee, I'm charm'd by thy beauty, dear boy!
And if thou'rt unwilling, then force I'll employ."
- Erlking by Goethe
The ‚End of History’ lasted for over two decades. However, it ended like it started: surprisingly and abruptly.
Even though there have been many events in the past that have been announcing the end of the neo-liberal hegemonie in the world like, the financial crisis and the consequent bank bailouts in 2008, the catastrophic wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the chaos created in Ukraine and Georgia and so on.
However, the official end of the neo-liberal hegemonie and the dawn of a multipolar world (Re-Start of History) was announced on Tuesday the 29th of October by the presidents of China and Russia at the UN’s General Assembly, Xi Jingpig and Vladimir Putin:
"The law of the jungle is not the way for countries to conduct international relations.” –Xi Jinpig
"Do you realise what you have done. " - Putin
And one day later Russia re-started history again, when it started it’s military intervention in Syria in order to find a political solution that will be acceptable by all sides in Syria.
However, by extending the ‚near-abroad’ doctrine to Syria, Russia has re-defined the terms how international relations will be conducted in the future and above all how world problems will be approached and solved internationally in the future.
Russian decision is strategic and therefore irreversible. And as Sergey Lavrov put it:
“Old habits die hard. Parting with one’s sense of global dominion is not easy and this process is going to be long and painful, but I’m sure that in the long haul we’ll agree on the need to redistribute our responsibilities from conflict resolution to economics to finance and trade,” Lavrov quoted by Sputnik News
I think most EU countries, at least the old Europe countries, have already realised this. The US is lacking behind, however, I have no doubts that they will eventually draw the right conclusions as well, for a better future.
However, we must not forget the destruction, chaos and human suffering in those states that didn’t import the neo-liberal values voluntarily:
- Iraq 1.0
- Yugoslavia 1.0 (Breaking up the federal state)
- Yugoslavia 2.0 (Bombing of Serbia and pealing off Kosovo)
- Iraq 2.0